A 1991 study of 640 children in Glasgow, Scotland, discovered that children who were aware of cigarette advertising at the beginning of the study, reported a growing intention to smoke over the course of a year than children who were less aware of or less interested in the ads. In the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, Large cigarette companies agreed on some restrictions in advertisements and promotions aimed directly at young people, However, The industry has continued to market tobacco, largely through traditional advertising and promotion, with a greater emphasis on one-to-one approaches, such as direct mail and online marketing. Although young people are no longer exposed to certain forms of advertising, such as television advertising or outdoor billboards, they are still exposed to some direct marketing efforts (King and Siegel 2001; Siegel 2001). In addition, industry marketing efforts targeting young adults, allowed by the agreement, have indirect indirect effects on young people through young adults who are ambitious models for young people (Kastenbaum et al. 1972; Montepare and Lachman 1989; Zollo 1995). Marketing efforts aimed at young adults can also affect the starting rates of tobacco within this population, as campaigns have been shown to promote regular smoking and increase consumption levels . There are also indications that between 2002 and 2009 more and more young adults will start smoking, although this increase stabilized in 2010 (administration of substance abuse and mental health, unpublished data, 2005–2010; see also Chapter 3, Appendix 3.1.31) .
Electronic cigarette advertisements (electronic cigarettes), which are currently not sold under existing cigarette brands, prevail on the web. Information about electronic cigarettes is widely distributed through internet advertisements, blogs (p. E.g., Electronic Cigarette Tavern and Electronic Cigarette Magazine) and commercialists (p. ex., Electronic cigarettes, Inc. and smoke everywhere). Electronic cigarettes are battery-powered devices that heat a liquid nicotine solution in a cigarette-shaped tube that turn users over to breathe in a steam filled with nicotine. They are mainly sold via the internet via commercial websites (Noel et al. 2011) and, to a lesser extent, through kiosks in shopping centers and tobacconists. Web-based searches using the terms “electronic cigarette”, “electronic cigarette” and “electronic cigarette” restore hundreds of sites that sell and / or promote electronic cigarettes, including retail marketing sites, electronic cigarette defense sites, blogs, advertisements, press releases and sponsored articles.
Commercial e-cigarette websites contain a variety of messages to promote products, including being a safer and / or healthier alternative to smoking tobacco cigarettes (Blucigs 2011; Direct E-cig 2011; Smoking Everywhere 2011). Other reports include that e-cigarettes are a new or modern way of smoking and can be used in places where smoking is not allowed (Gamucci 2011; Smoking Everywhere 2011). Many sites include instructional videos (Blucigs 2011; Greensmoke 2011), testimonials on the benefits of using electronic cigarettes (Blucigs 2011; Gamucci 2011) and images of people using the products in places covered by smoke-free laws . Some sites also use social media features, such as Facebook and Twitter, to encourage visitors to support or “like” their products or connect with other users .
For example, Lancaster and Lancaster concluded that there is no evidence of an effect of bans targeting marketing and advertising costs for cigarette smoking. According to many theoretical behavioral models, including TTI, behavioral intentions are immediate precursors to behavior and are one of the strongest predictors of future behavior. Systematic assessments have found that behavioral intentions are strong and robust predictors of behavior (Armitage and Connor 2001; Sheeran 2002). In addition, research shows that advertising and promotion have influenced the behavioral intentions regarding smoking in a way that leads to an increase in adolescent sensitivity to smoking onset and progression to solid smoking. In a 2002 study, ninth-class students exposed to cigarette ads were found to have significantly more positive beliefs about smokers, as well as more positive intentions to smoke in the future than those who were not exposed to such ads .
Figure 5.12 summarizes the results of longitudinal studies of early smoking in adolescents who have used measures to restore film exposure (results 5-10). Four studies of white adolescents (Dalton et al. 2003; Jackson et al. 2007; Hanewinkel and Sargent 2008; Titus-Ernstoff et al. 2008) from the United States and Germany yielded results consistent with multivariate estimates of relative risk in the 2-3 range. Smaller risk measures were found among Latin American Americans (Wilkinson et al. 2009), and the findings were void for Mexican adolescents (Thrasher et al. 2009). Between 1990 and 2007, Sargent and Heatherton compared smoke developments in the top 25 cash register hits each year with trends in smoking for young people resulting from the MTF survey. Based on your work, Figure 5.10 illustrates parallel to low trends for smoking movies and smoking in teenagers among the eighth graders after 1996.
This section briefly discusses pricing strategies in the sector and examines relatively limited research into the relationships between these strategies (especially promotions to lower prices) and tobacco use among young people. Given the importance of local, state and federal taxes in determining the price, the most comprehensive study of the impact of taxes and prices on tobacco consumption among young people will be covered in Chapter 6. As described in more detail in that chapter, an important finding shows that young people respond more than adults to price changes in terms of tobacco consumption.
A longitudinal study using Future Monitoring data has illustrated the importance of non-smoking intentions and the need for young people to develop and maintain firm and future intentions not to smoke (Wakefield et al. 2004). After analyzing the data, Wakefield and colleagues concluded that “having a firm intention not to smoke within 5 years has a generally protective effect on the probability of smoking in the future” (p. 918, 921) that “has a protective effect, regardless of the current level of smoking experience” (p. 921). Still, there is also evidence from MTF data suggesting that intentions do not predict future behaviors of abandonment. In two MTF-based studies, a large proportion of students who smoked believed that they would not smoke in 3 years, but approximately two thirds still smoked between 5 and 9 years later (Lynch and Bonnie 1994; Johnston et al. 2002). These last two studies show that, like most adults, adolescents underestimate the risk of addiction (Slovic 2001; Halpern-Felsher et al. 2004).
NCI’s monograph on tobacco discouragement, The Role of the Media in promoting and reducing tobacco consumption, also examined evidence on how tobacco marketing efforts affect adolescent tobacco consumption. Using numerous studies and documents from the tobacco industry, the report concluded that even a short exposure to tobacco advertising affects the attitude and perception of smoking and the intentions of teenagers to smoke. In addition, evidence that exposure to cigarette advertising affects teenagers who don’t smoke to start smoking and switch to regular smoking. Although Philip Morris withdrew his TV ad campaign against parents after the Wakefield study and colleagues were published, he still quotes his own weak evaluation data to suggest his “Talk”. Tobacco companies recruit new smokers and their advertising campaigns attract teenagers’ aspirations (Perry 1999; Lovato et al. 2003; United States v. Philip Morris USA, 449 F. Supp. 2d 1, 980 [D.D.C. 2006]; NCI 2008).
The most plausible justification for ad spending at the observed level would be to attract new customers to generate long-term cash flow for businesses (Tye et al. 1987). In addition, the nature of the images used in the ads clearly attracts teenagers’ ambitions, suggesting they are a target . Several longitudinal studies have investigated the relationship between cigarette marketing exposure and subsequent changes in adolescent smoking behavior, while monitoring for potential disruptive factors. Pierce and his associates estimate that in 1993, 34% of smoking adolescent smoking experiments in California could be attributed to tobacco Springfield m1a socom advertising and marketing. Tobacco manufacturers have long argued that their marketing efforts do not increase overall demand for tobacco products and do not affect the onset of tobacco consumption among young people; rather they claim to compete with other companies for market share. On the other hand, The evidential value of extensive and increasingly advanced research that has been carried out in recent decades, shows that marketing activities in the industry have been a key factor in leading young people to tobacco, prevent some users from stopping, and achieve greater consumption among users (National Cancer Institute 2008).
He kept all other factors constant, as every 10 hours a week the teen watched television last year, he was 11% more likely to be a current smoker. This study is valuable because once adult smoking has been diagnosed as a result of nicotine addiction, major changes in smoking behavior are unlikely to occur based on annual changes in ad level. In summary, the internal documents themselves and evidence from the tobacco industry indicate that industry should recruit new smokers among young people. The evidence in this chapter shows multiple strategies for the tobacco industry to pursue this goal of increasing the initiation and use of tobacco products among young people.